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Facebook is the most popular social media site for SCG play [21]. The differentiation between SCG types in the present analysis was deemed important given that previous research on monetary gambling has demonstrated that individuals who engage in different types of gambling activities are typically defined by unique characteristics and tendencies [40, 60]. These same effects may also be applicable to SCGs. In addition to exploring these new effects, the present study aims to replicate previously reported associations between SCG use, monetary gambling, and problem gambling among adolescents. In pairing these replication efforts with assessments of SCG player characteristics, the aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the manner in which SCG play is related to monetary gambling among adolescents, and to build upon existing longitudinal studie HappyLuke s on this topic. Use of SCGs in the past three months is assessed in the present study to capture current participation rather than lifetime participation in social casino gaming. Further, a large and representative sample of adolescents from three Canadian provinces is examined in the present study, thereby overcoming a limitation of the majority of Canadian studies of adolescent gambling that have primarily relied upon convenience samples recruited from major cities [61].

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Based on existing literature, it is predicted that, among adolescents, males will be more likely to play the SCG of poker, whereas females will be more likely to play the SCG of slots [10]. Further, it is hypothesized that those who have played SCGs in the past three months will be more likely to report: being a current smoker, having access to either very high or very low disposable income, having parents or close peers who gamble, achieving lower grades in school, leading a more sedentary lifestyle, binge-drinking, and engaging in monetary gambling activities [10, 15, 44]. Additionally, based on existing findings, it is expected that higher-severity problem gambling will be observed among adolescents who have played SCGs in the past three months versus those who have not [14, 26]. Specific hypotheses regarding the manner in which factors associated with SCG play may differ across game types have not been put forth due to the paucity of research on this subject.


Participants in the study were 10,035 secondary-school students in Grades 9 to 12, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years. Participants completed the Youth Gambling Survey (YGS; [62]), a supplementary instrument administered alongside the Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CSTADS), formerly the Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) [63, 64]. Students were recruited to complete the YGS through stratified multistage sampling that yielded provincially representative samples from three Canadian provinces: Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland and Labrador. All school boards, schools, and students who took part in the YSS in these provinces were also eligible to complete the YGS. Overall, a total of 15,269 students across the three provinces were eligible to take part in the YGS, and the response rate was 66%. The YGS was administered in both English and French following the YSS questionnaire, and it was completed by participating students in their classrooms during school hours. The administration of both the YSS and the YGS took approximately 20–30 min within each class. Data collection occurred in the years 2012–2013, and therefore it preceded the legalization of online gambling that took place in Ontario in January, 2015. Additional details regarding the YSS can be found at: https://uwaterloo.ca/canadian-student-tobacco-alcohol-drugs-survey/